Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you will urban believed in the warm Africa’, AHR, ninety, step three (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step 19step 14), step one40-step one

96 AOM, AP648, Decree towards production of good Commune in the Brazzaville, 5 October 1911; address regarding Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Yearly statement regarding Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Bien au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. one hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De- Bordeaux au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 32-step three, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 For metropolitan buildings within the colonial Africa, look for, Philip D. Betts, Not sure dimensions: west to another country empires about twentieth century (Minneapolis: School out of Minnesota Push, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion sur l’architecture europeenne le enough time de- la cote africaine good partir de l’exemple de- los angeles Guinee’, inside the Almeida-Topor and Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and you can Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition from the service regarding modernity: frameworks and you may urbanism in the French colonial plan, 1900-1930’, Diary of contemporary History, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 On record and you may importance of new Fourteenth away from July in Brazzaville, come across Phyllis Yards. Martin, ‘National holidays turned: the brand new fourteenth out of July inside the Brazzaville’, report presented at 30-7th yearly conference of one’s African Education Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles area de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 106 Message regarding Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais durante Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The impression out-of colonialism towards health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you may metropolitan planning’, 594-7. 110 Ibid., 598-609; including Headrick, ‘The feeling out-of colonialism toward health’, 143-cuatro, 801-dos. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la area de- Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De- VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Le Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la region de- Brazzaville’; and AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Manager so you can Administrator-Standard when you look at lesbian sex dating Canada the Libreville, 13 July 1901. 116 Cited when you look at the Headrick, ‘The impact regarding colonialism with the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 Could possibly get 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual account ‘Oeuvres de la Sainte-Enfance’, twenty-four October 1901,1 January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue is actually a regard to manioc dough. 120 AOM, TP152, initial show, Mission Fillon, Report off Meters. Henri with the Brazzaville staff members, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9.

Fehderau, The foundation and you will development of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) means that Kituba is a words with the slave-trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Journal, 29 May 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9. 124 Look for, like, J.-P. Chretien and G. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The creation of tribalism within the southern Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Adaptation and you can social title: the manufacture of national room inside outlying France and you can colonial area inside the outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana University Target Global Alter and you will Community Peace, 1994); Terence Ranger, The fresh new innovation out-of tradition from inside the colonial Africa’, in Hobsbawm and you will Ranger (eds.), The fresh advancement out of heritage, 211-62, he keeps changed since creativity of society reviewed: the case of colonial Africa’, inside Terence Ranger and you can Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity while the condition for the twentieth 100 years Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. Throughout the revision away from their essay, Ranger has been influenced, yet others, by Benedict Anderson, Imagined organizations: reflections towards sources and you may give from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, Brand new root out-of Kituba and you will Lingala’, Record off African Languages and you may Linguistics, 12, step one (September 1991), 47-77, suggests that their diffusion are even more related to international railway gurus from the straight down Congo. 126 ASMF, Age l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren to help you SMF, 18 Oct 1911; B and Elizabeth. zero. step 1, Korr., Lindgren to SMF, 11 November 1911; F. zero. step one, Dagbok, twenty two February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, Grams. A beneficial. Hult in order to SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Message from Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Statement on Pool region, Brazzaville, May 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a beneficial-t-il de l’ensemble des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The root out-of Kituba and you can Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you may colonial imagination’, Canadian Log away from African Studies, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Diary, 31 May 1908,25 Sep 1910,step 1 December 1913. 131 See sections step 3 and you can cuatro. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), 50, 72-3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 31, 29. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management report, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban room, industrial big date, and you may salary work during the Africa’, within his Challenge towards town, 23. dos step one